The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. They also agreed on the organization of the « Talanoa » dialogue in 2018. It will provide space to assess the joint progress made next year at COP 24 in Poland to achieve long-term climate goals. The EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to combat climate change. It played an important role in mediating the Paris Agreement and continues to play a leading role at the global level. Nicolas Holiber`s old wood carvings highlight the threat that climate change poses to bird towns. In an effort to « significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change, » the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as « determined national contributions » (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. The EU is committed to increasing its financial contribution to aid to developing countries in the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
The EU and its Member States remain the largest provider of public climate finance, with a total contribution of EUR 20.4 billion in 2017. A study published in 2018 shows a threshold where temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be « 4-5 degrees Celsius ») compared to pre-industrial levels, compared to pre-industrial levels, thanks to returns of self-amplitude in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris climate agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out: « We find that in its history, the Earth has never had a nearly stable state, warmer than that of pre-industrial, and suggests that there is a significant risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want to continue warming, even if we stop emissions. This means not only reducing emissions, but much more.  A new issue that has proven to be the centre of gravity of the Paris negotiations is that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or will come too quickly to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement explicitly recognizes the need to repair such losses and damages and seeks to find appropriate responses.  It is specified that losses and damage can take different forms, both as immediate effects of extreme weather events and as slow effects, such as land loss at sea level for deep islands.  By quantifying the damage caused by carbon pollution to society, Trump sees America as an island apart – and we all know what climate change is doing to the islands. Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century.