If a contract is subject to Senate approval, the Senate has several options for action. The Senate may approve or reject the Treaty as it is, or match its approval, by inserting amendments to the treaty text into the resolution – reservations, agreements, interpretations, statements or other statements. The President and the other countries concerned must then decide whether to accept the terms and amendments to the legislation, to renegotiate the provisions or to abandon the treaty. Finally, the Senate may decide not to take final action, so that the treaty remains pending in the Senate until it is withdrawn at the request of the Speaker or, occasionally, at the initiative of the Senate. 2 Rejected on 8 March 1983 by 50 votes to 42; The request for re-ernition was seized, but was not accepted; The treaty remained on the timetable of the Committee on Foreign Relations until 1998, when it was returned to the President as part of the resolution to ratify Protocol 4 of Montreal. Most executive agreements were concluded in accordance with a treaty or an act of Congress. However, presidents have sometimes reached executive agreements to achieve goals that would not find the support of two-thirds of the Senate. For example, after the outbreak of World War II, but before the Americans entered the conflict, President Franklin D. Roosevelt negotiated an executive agreement that gave the United Kingdom 50 obsolete destroyers in exchange for 99-year leases on some British naval bases in the Atlantic. The Constitution did not expressly give me the power to reach the necessary agreement with Santo Domingo.

But the Constitution did not forbid me to do what I did. I put the agreement into force, and I continued its implementation for two years before the Senate acted; And I would have pursued it until the end of my term, if necessary, without Congress taking action. But it was much better for Congress to act so that we could act on a contract that was the law of the land, and not just on the orders of the chief executive, who would expire if that executive was removed from office. So I did my best to get the Senate to ratify what I did. [11] Between 1946 and 1999, the United States concluded nearly 16,000 international agreements. Only 912 of these agreements were treaties subject to Senate approval in accordance with Article II of the Constitution. Since Franklin Roosevelt`s presidency, only 6% of international agreements have been concluded in the form of Article II treaties. [1] Most of these executive agreements consist of executive agreements of Congress.

Executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification. Many nations that are republics with written constitutions have constitutional rules on treaty ratification. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is based on executive agreements. In recent years, the growth of executive agreements has also been due to the volume of business between the United States and other countries, coupled with the already high workload of the Senate.